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About Us

Welcome to the Endoscopy Unit. The Endoscopy Unit is part of the Center for Specialized Services of the National Kidney and Transplant Institute. The Endoscopy Unit provides a comprehensive gastrointestinal and pulmonary endoscopy services with the use of flexible fiberoptics for direct visualization, and digitally enhanced examination, of the gastrointestinal tract, the biliary tract, and the lungs. It provides an extensive line of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic procedures which may be done either on an out-patient or on an in-patient basis. All gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures are done by board certified (Philippine Society of Digestive Endoscopy) endoscopists.


Upper Gut Endoscopy

Diagnostic Procedures

  • Esophagoscopy

  • Gastroscopy

  • Duodenoscopy

  • Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

Therapeutic Interventions

    Control of bleeding

  • Variceal (rubber band ligation, endoloop ligation, sclerotherapy)

  • Ulcers (epinephrine injection, hemoclips)

    Esophageal Dilation

  • Achalasia (Achalasia balloon)

  • Strictures (Balloon Dilator, Savary Guillard)

      Esophageal Stenting

  • Tumor ablation/removal by hot biopsy forceps or polypectomy

      Foreign Body Removal

  • ERCP Interventions

      Papillotomy/ Sphincterotomy

  • Bile duct Stone extraction

  • Bile Duct Stone Mechanical Lithotripsy

  • Bile Duct Dilation

  • Bile Duct /Pancreatic Duct Stenting

Lower Gut Endoscopy

Diagnostic Procedures

    Rigid Proctoscopy
    Flexible Sigmoidoscopy
    Therapeutic Interventions
    Control of bleeders (epinephrine injection, hemoclip)

Description of and Preparation for the Procedure:

Upper Gut Endoscopy (Gastroscopy)
The Digestive System

Gastroscopy enables the physician to look inside the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (first part of the small intestine). Mucosal lesions and masses can easily be seen during the procedure and biopsies may readily be taken with very minimal risk to the patient.

The procedure entails a thin flexible lighted tube to be inserted through your mouth after adequate application of a local anesthetic. This anesthesia spray may taste a little bitter and will make your throat numb to avoid gagging reflex during the procedure. This is generally well tolerated by most patients. Some, however, may need a mild sedative to be injected intravenously before the procedure.

Mild sedation may make the procedure more comfortable for the anxious patient. For unstable patients, an anesthesiologist may be asked to administer the sedatives and monitor you throughout the procedure.

During the procedure, air will be introduced through the endoscope to adequately evaluate the lining of your esophagus, stomach and duodenum. If necessary, biopsies may be taken during the procedure for histologic diagnosis and confirmation. The procedure will usually last for 10-15 minutes or longer, depending if therapeutic interventions, such as injection to stop active bleeding, are done. The entire procedure is videotaped to allow review of the findings after the procedure.

The risks in upper gut endoscopy are minimal. Complications may include bleeding or perforation but very rarely occur. Some soreness in the throat or mild bloated feeling may occasionally be felt for a few minutes after the procedure. These usually resolve spontaneously. You may safely walk immediately after the procedure, if you have not been sedated. On the other hand, sedated patients will have to stay for a few more minutes in the endoscopy recovery room and may not drive after the procedure. It is best to have a companion with you during your scheduled procedure.

Preparation: Your stomach should be empty during the procedure to provide adequate visualization of the linings of your GI tract. You cannot eat or drink for 6 hours before the procedure except for some medications (e.g. anti-hypertensive medications) which you may take with a few sips of water. Always inform your doctor of medicines that you are taking and if you have to continue taking it or stop temporarily until after the procedure. If you are a diabetic on medications, ALWAYS inform your doctor so that he may prioritize your schedule and advise you on your medications. Have a companion with you when you go to the endoscopy unit.
Lower gut endoscopy (colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy)
Colonoscopy allows the physician look inside your large intestine, from you anal opening to the last portion of the small intestines. Sigmoidoscopy, on the other hand, allows only visualization of the distal half of your colon, from the anal opening to the descending colon. The procedure can detect mucosal lesions ranging from inflammation, small ulcers, polyps, to big growths in the colon. Sites of bleeding can usually be identified. These procedures are more advantageous than contrast radiology since lesions are directly visualized and small lesions are not missed. Biopsies can also be readily taken during the procedure with no additional risk or discomfort for the patient.

During the procedure, you will be property draped and asked to lie on your left side on the examining table. A mild sedative may be given intravenously to keep you comfortable during the colonoscopy. Some patients, however, prefer no pre-medications and the entire procedure is generally well tolerated by most. Sigmoidoscopy, however, usually does not need any sedation since the procedure is very well tolerated by the patient.

A long, thin, lighted endoscope will be passed through your anal opening after adequate lubrication. Air will be insufflated to facilitate insertion of the entire scope through the colon. You may feel a little bloated and with the urge of defecating. Your colon, however, is usually clean because of the preparation and the feeling is only due to the scope and air inside the colon. You may occasionally be asked to change position to facilitate scope insertion. Should lesions be seen during the procedure, a biopsy or a more definitive procedure such as injection of bleeders or polypectomy may have to be done. Your physician may have to decide on this during the procedure itself. The procedure is videotaped to allow review after the procedure.

After the procedure, you may feel bloated with occasional abdominal cramps. This usually subsides with passage of fiatus. You may safely walk immediately after the procedure, if you have not been sedated. On the other hand, sedated patients will have to stay for a few more minutes in the endoscopy recovery room and may not drive after the procedure. It is best to have a companion with you during your scheduled procedure.

The risks of colonoscopy are minimal with bleeding and perforation being rarely encountered. This may be a little bit higher with therapeutic procedures such as injection, polypectomy, or dilation.

Preparation: Your colon has to be clean during the procedure. You,^ physician will instruct you on the laxatives he prefers to be taken as preparation for the procedure. This may either be castor oil, bisacodyl (Dulcolax), or phosphosoda (Fleet phoisphosoda). You may have to discuss your preference with yoLfphysician. Generally, you will have a limited diet on the day before the procedure with low fiber and minimal solid intake. General liquids is preferred, however, to ensure a clean colon. Your stools should be watery on the night before the procedure and you should take plenty of fluids or rehydrating solutions if necessary. You cannot eat or drink 6 hours prior to the procedure. Always inform your physician of medications you are taking as some of these medications may have to be continued despite your fasting preparations. Have an accompanying person when you go to the endoscopy unit to assist you especially after the procedure.
Release of Result:
Results are released immediately after the procedure. For in-patients, results are incorporated in the chart but for out-patients, results are given to the patient on discharge from the endoscopy unit. Videotaped copies of the procedure may be requested but the physician will have to be informed beforehand or a copy may be requested and picked up at a later date.
Time Schedule:
The Endoscopy Unit is open from 6:30 am to 4:00 pm, Mondays to Fridays and 7:00 am to 12:00pm on Saturdays. ALL procedures will have to be scheduled by your attending endoscopist since there is no in-house endoscopist who may readily do the procedure if you just walk-in to the unit. Your attending endoscopist will be the one to do your procedure. The unit may be used beyond these specified time only on emergency cases.

Our Expert Team 



Dr. Ernesto R. Que


Dr. Felix Domingo


Dr. Leticia Ibanez


Dr. Jaime Ignacio


Dr. John Pangilinan


Dr. Fred Supan


Dr. Felix Zano

Contact Us

Mailing Address:

Endoscopy Unit


National Kidney and Transplant Institute


East Avenue, Quezon City 1100



Email Address:

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Contact Numbers:

(63) (2) 8981-0300, 8981-0400 local 1172, 1173

Business Days & Hours:

Monday-Friday, 6am-5pm


Saturday, on-call