• 1 of 5 Baxter-PD2
    The inauguration of the NKTI-Baxter Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) Center of Excellence was held last February 23, 2021 at the NKTI. The center is a two-storey warehouse for PD dialysis solutions and accessories. Facilities include areas for patient training and clinical management as well as a queuing system to make the process of claiming these lifesaving fluids more efficient for PD patients.
  • 2 of 5 Baxter-PD
  • 3 of 5 Baxter-PD3
  • 4 of 5 38th-Anniversary
  • 5 of 5 38th-Anniversary2

Neurophysiologic Diagnostic Test

         1. Electroencephalography (EEG)

EEG is an examination of spontaneous brian activity. Being one index of cerebral function, this test is relevant not only in neurology but also in other specialties. This test may be helpful in diagnosis and/or prognostication. EEG may be a useful diagnostic indicator in relation (but not limited) to the following diseases:
  • Epilepsy

  • Related disorders of epilepsy

  • Non-epileptic paroxysmal disorders

  • Organic brain diseases

  • Craniocerebral injury and its sequelae

  • Brain tumor and other intracranial spatial disorders

  • Cerebrovascular disorders

  • Electroencephalographic ex

  • Uremia

  • Endocrine diseases

  • Metabolic diseases

  • Pulmonary encephalopathy

  • Hepatic diseases

  • Collagen diseases

  • Toxemia during pregnancy

  • Brain death (Electrocerebral Silence or ECS)

  • Psychosomatic diseases

         2. Electromyography (EMG)

            Electromyography and nerve conduction studies (EMG/NCS) are examinations of nerve and muscle activity. The clinical diagnostic evaluations performed are:

  • Sensory Nerve Conduction Study

  • Motor Nerve Conduction Study

  • F wave and H reflex measurements (Late Responses)

  • Blink Reflex measurement

  • Repetitive Nerve Stimulation

  • Needle Electromyography

Clinical electromyography has become an essential tool in the diagnosis and management of neuromuscular diseases. For sensory complaints, weakness or involuntary muscle twitchings, EMG can help localize lesion and know extent (focal or generalized) and degree of injury or pathology. EMG can differentiate whether lesions are localized to the anterior horn cell, root, peripheral nerve, neuromuscular junction or to primary muscle pathology.

Because of their sensitivity, electrophysiologic studies may disclose peripheral nervous system diseases even when there are no overt clinical signs and symptoms yet. A good example is uremic polyneuropathy which can be deteted at an early stage; in fact, the effect of various applied treatments on its clinical course can be charted. Nerve conduction studies in uremic neuropathy have shown that hemodialysis halts the progression of the disorder and that renal transplantation, if successful, causes almost complete recovery.

Clinical EMG may also aid in investigation of difficulty in weaning of intubated or stuporous patients. Electrophysiologic studies may uncover whether a primary nerve or muscle problem is contributory to respiratory muscle paralysis.

            Below are several of the neuromuscular diseases that may be diagnosed in our unit:

  • Anterior Horn Cell Diseases

                      o Poliomyelitis/Post-polio syndrome
                      o Amyotropic lateral sclerosis
                      o Spinal muscular atrophy

  • Radiculopathies (cervical, lumbar) and Plexopathies (brachial, lumbar)

                      o Degenerative Disk Diseases
                      o Traumatic
                      o Compressive syndromes
                      o Inflammatory

  • Peripheral Neuropathies

                      o Generalized
                            + Uremic and other metabolic causes
                            + Diabetic and other endocrinologic causes
                            + Nutritional, Toxic or Drug-related
                            + Carcinomatous, Paraneopalstic
                            + Immunologic/Autoimmune states

                      o Focal
                            + Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
                            + Ulnar and other palsies
                            + Other compressive syndromes
                            + Other metabolic causes initially manifesting as focal lesions (e.g. diabetes mellitus, etc.)

  • Neuromuscular Junction Abnormalities

                      o Myasthenia Gravis and other myasthenic syndromes
                      o Lambert-Eaton Syndrome

  • Myopathies

                      o Polymyositis
                      o Dermatomyositis
                      o Steroid-induced myopath and other drug-induced myopathies
                      o Congenital or Genetically-related
                      o Other inflammatory conditions